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Ammonia is one potential fuel type we are investigating. It can be sustainably produced from water, air and renewable energy and stored efficiently as a liquid by compressing or cooling it. The shipping industry is familiar with ammonia, as many shipping companies sail with it as cargo today. There are official guidelines for its transport, and we know how to handle and store it safely as cargo.
Green ammonia is an ideal replacement for fuel oil used on ferries because it is produced by a 100% renewable and carbon-free process. It can be converted into electricity in a solid oxide fuel cell with only water and nitrogen as a by-product.
Black ammonia is already available in many key ports globally, small gas carriers (LPG vessels) could be converted into bunker boats. This enables the potential fast creation of a global ammonia bunker infrastructure. In the beginning, some ammonia would be black or blue - the latter means its CO2 is captured and stored in depleted oil fields. Ship engines and fuel cells are colour blind when it comes to future fuels, so global coverage could be enabled by black/blue ammonia, and as the production of green hydrogen increases, shipping could move from black/blue to green ammonia.
We are upgrading one of our vessels to become a large-scale sailing test lab for fuel cells and innovative technologies, together with partners in the maritime industry.
The ZEEDS (Zero Emission Energy Distribution at Sea) partnership works to set up new forms of energy production and distribution to vessels at sea to reduce the need for docking and enable faster, greener, more efficient shipping. The partnership envisions that the infrastructure of the future is composed of fuel hubs set up next to offshore wind turbines.
We have partnered with Arla, Maersk, Danish Crown, Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners, and DLG in Power-to-Ammonia, a new alternative fuel project in Esbjerg on the west coast of Denmark. The facility is expected to be operational in 2026.